My Name is Marie De Frence I am 20 years of age and lived in Harmony Hall Gasparillo. I attended Gasparillo Secondary School and then Pleasantville Secondary School for 2 years. I am currently studying a the University of the West Indies doing a Major in Biology and Chemistry. So far my 1st year experience is going pretty well thus far and I intend to keep it this way thou it may have it struggles. This blog I’ve made is really pertaining to a Biochemistry course am doing. This course is my second favorite subject at UWI, on which I do intend to further myself in and one day get my Masters in it.
Kawasaki Disease Diagnosed by Urine Protein
Kawsasaki disease (KD) a autoimmune disease causes blood vessels to become inflamed throughout the body and is most commonly caused by acquired pediatric heart.
KD is difficult to diagnose because of it symptoms which include enlarge lymph nodes, swollen red hands and feet etc. Diagnosis of KD can be found through clinical algorithms and echocardiography but if it fails 25% of the patients may develop coronary artery dilation. Accurate diagnostic markers have been discovered in children’s urine. An experiment was performed using 107 patients for 39 months who were suspected of having KD. They found 53 patients to be diagnosed with KD 33 had nonspecific viral syndrome and the remainder had conditions that mimic KD. Researchers then uses 15 samples form 6 children with KD, 6 with another illness and 3 children with KD after a month of treatment. They discovered over more than 190 proteins with patients with KD after treating with a high dose of apsprin and intravenous gammaglobulin. They found a variety of proteins associated with endothelial and myocardial with meprin A and filamin C and a immune regulator DMBT1. Urine concentrations of meprin A and filamin C was significantly elevated with patients with KD as compared with pateints without. These two proteins were superior proteins to the others and were known to be the markers of Kawasaki disease.
Saturated fats (butter, dairy products, meat) are fats which are evenly filled out with hydrogen, which remains solid at room temperature. The introduction of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain results in the formation of the unsaturated fatty acids (vegetable oils). The fatty acid with a single double bond is called mono unsaturated fatty acid (e.g. oleic acid), and if it has multiple double bonds, it’s polyunsaturated (e.g. linoleic acid). By virtue of their tightly packed structure, the saturated fatty acids increase the levels of bad cholesterol (LDL) and clog the arteries. On the other hand, the unsaturated fatty acids increase the levels of good cholesterol (HDL) by taking the LDL to the liver to be broken down and removed from the body.
Unsaturated fatty acids remain liquid at room temp. If it needs to be solidified, it has to be hydrogenated, or saturated with hydrogen by breaking the carbon double bonds and attaching hydrogen. The mono unsaturated fats are considered good fats because of the lower cholesterol content.
Lipid metabolism is closely connected to the metabolism of carbohydrates which may be converted to fats. This can be seen in the diagram on the left. The metabolism of both is upset by diabetes mellitus.
The first step in lipid metabolism is the hydrolysis of the lipid in the cytoplasm to produce glycerol and fatty acids.
Since glycerol is a three carbon alcohol, it is metabolized quite readily into an intermediate in glycolysis, dihydroxyacetone phosphate. The last reaction is readily reversible if glycerol is needed for the synthesis of a lipid.
The hydroxyacetone, obtained from glycerol is metabolized into one of two possible compounds. Dihydroxyacetone may be converted into pyruvic acid through the glycolysis pathway to make energy.
In addition, the dihydroxyacetone may also be used ingluconeogenesis to make glucose-6-phosphate for glucose to the blood or glycogen depending upon what is required at that time.
Fatty acids are oxidized to acetyl CoA in the mitochondria using the fatty acid spirall. The acetyl CoA is then ultimately converted into ATP, CO2, and H2O using the krebs cycle and the ETC
Fatty acids are synthesized from carbohydrates and occasionally from proteins. Actually, the carbohydrates and proteins have first been catabolized into acetyl CoA. Depending upon the energy requirements, the acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle or is used to synthesize fatty acids in a process known as LIPOGENESIS.
Electrons flow through the electron transport chain to molecular oxygen; during this flow, protons are moved across the inner membrane from the matrix to the intermembrane space. This model for ATP synthesis is called the chemiosmotic mechanism, or Mitchell hypothesis. Peter Mitchell, a British biochemist, essentially by himself and in the face of contrary opinion, proposed that the mechanism for ATP synthesis involved the coupling between chemical energy (ATP) and osmotic potential (a higher concentration of protons in the intermembrane space than in the matrix). The inner membrane of the mitochondrion is tightly packed with cytochromes and proteins capable of undergoing redox changes. There are four major protein-membrane complexes.
There are three sites within the electron transport chain where the decrease in free energy is sufficient to convert ADP to ATP. Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which NADH and FADH2 are oxidized, with concomitant production of ATP. Two molecules of ATP are produced when FADH2 is oxidized, and 3 molecules of ATP are produced when NADH is oxidized. The synthesis of ATP occurs because of a flow of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The complete oxidation of one glucose molecule by the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation yields 36 molecules of ATP, vs. two molecules of ATP by glycolysis. For an excellent tutorial on oxidative phosphorylation.\